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Barrett Turnhout, , pp Martin, O. Kilkenny, , pp Skip to main content. Then he rushed out of the wood, and broke through the shieldburg, and hewed at the king. Then Brodir called out with a loud voice, "Now let man tell man that Brodir felled Brian. Robert Cook, intro. The saga shows how even worthy people can destroy themselves by disputes and demonstrates the tensions in the Icelandic Commonwealth which eventually led to its destruction.

Magnus Magnusson finds it "a little pathetic, now, to read how vulnerable these men were to calls on their honour; it was fatally easy to goad them into action to avenge some suspicion of an insult". Insults involving a character's manliness are especially prominent in the saga. Another example, among many, is when the gift of a silk garment is considered an insult by Flosi and a hard-won settlement breaks down as a consequence. The role of fate and, especially, of fatalism is, however, a matter of scholarly contention.

When he denies having a woman in Iceland, she curses him so that he is unable to consummate his marriage. While this conforms to Icelandic law, it offends justice. Despite his humiliation, he sees future links with Gunnar. This comes about when Gunnar returns with honours from a trip to Scandinavia. After each killing, their husbands make financial settlements according to the status of the victims.

Gunnar immediately seeks to make amends, but his handsome offers are not accepted. This is followed by Otkell accidentally wounding Gunnar. Insult follows injury and Gunnarr reluctantly goes to avenge himself.

Njáls saga

With belated help from his brother Kolskeggur, he kills Otkell and his companions. In the course of the fight, his opponents cheat, and Gunnar finds himself in a fresh squabble. He instigates an attack on Gunnar by persons dissatisfied by the settlement. Again, Gunnarr wins the fight, but he kills a second man in the same family.

The settlement that follows requires that Gunnarr and Kolskeggur leave Iceland for three years.

Guide to Iceland

Arrangements are made for exile. But as Gunnar leaves home, he looks homeward and, touched by the beauty of his homeland, resolves not to leave Iceland, thus becoming an outlaw. He defends himself in his home until his bowstring is cut. Both return with enhanced honor, but also with companions. The most dramatic of the saga's battles follows.

There is a bridge of ice over the river between them. Between them the attackers kill four men, including Hrappr. At this point, the saga recounts the conversion of Iceland to Christianity in CE. He is pressured against his better judgement by Hildigunnr to accept only blood vengeance. This is so much that it can only be paid if the arbitrators, and many at the Althing, contribute. Everyone leaves the Althing and prepares, amid portents and prophecies, for the showdown.

Saxo Kallstenius Arduum, inquit, reor contra fortem fune contendere, s. Jfr D n:r och Rosenberg a. Ziehen am Strick Seil 2. Hoskuld to Hallgerd when she admits to him that Thjostolf killed Thorvald, her first husband: FMS XI, TPMA 4. Geschehen ist geschehen 6. TUN Vereinzelt Nord. Osvif, when he learns that Thjostolf has killed Thorvald: Hallgerd must have sent Thjostolf to Bjarnarfjord, and she herself must have gone home to her father.

Feghet — mod, kraft. Jfr JR n:r Schlechter Rat 3. See below, See Ch.

Njal's Saga, Part 4 (Njal's Sons)

See also TPMA Hrut to Hoskuld on compensation to Osvif: TPMA 8. Die Nasse steht nahe bei den Augen und dem Mund Nord. Hrut to Hoskuld, advising settlement with Osvif: I know for certain that she will not have me killed. If you want to do me honour, then ride with me to ask for her hand.


TPMA 1. Ander — selbst 1. Der andere dient uns als warnendes Beispiel 1. I, 51, What is fated will have to be. Es geschieht, was zu geschehen hat 4. Was geschehen muss und vom Schicksal bestimmt ist, geschieht auch Nord.

3. Manuscripts & Editions | The Variance of Njáls Saga

See above, 6. Thorarin to Hoskuld, arranging the marriage: Boer s. Am meisten die sache, d. TPMA 2.

Geltung und Wert des Eides 1. Altnordische saga-bibliothek, Glum to Thjostolf, just before being killed by him: Now I have to put up with insults from you, a bonded slave! Was man im eigenen Haus nicht hat, bringt man nicht nach aussen Nord. There some men came riding toward them and asked who the tall man was who showed so little of himself. His companions said that it was Huckster-Hedin and that with such a man out front it was not likely that a worse would follow. Hedin made as if he were going to attack them, but then both parties went on their way.

KG Hoskuld realizes that Huckster-Hedin was really Gunnar in disguise: Verschiedenes Nord. Hoskuld comments that although Hrut has been tricked, it was really by the cleverness of Njal: Njal must have planned it all — no one is his equal for cleverness. For a conceptually associated derivative proverb, see GJ See TPMA 4. Hallgerd threatens Bergthora when leaving the feast where she felt insulted: See above, Gering 9. Schlag und Gegenschlag To Hallgerd, who has said Njal and Gunnar are both cowards: Es wird sich zeigen Nord.

Sigmund to Gunnar, when the latter has warned him to guard his behaviour: Wer warnt, ist nicht schuldig Nord.

3. Manuscripts & Editions

C, Ikke volder den, det advarer. I mbr. Rannveig to Sigmund, on hearing of their killing of Thord Leysingjarson: And yet Gunnar will resolve the matter for you. But if Hallgerd puts another fly in your mouth it will be your death. Holder 26 : nec diu manum ictu exhilarari solere. Almindelig i brug. Saxo ed. Die Hand freut sich nicht lange am Schlag Mlat.

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See Fritzner 2 I, a. Strassburg, XXII, p. Gunnar to Sigmund after settling for the death of Thord Freedmansson: She came in again and raged some more. TPMA 7. Zweierlei Rede bewirken Nord. Gunnar, when Hallgerd tells him of the killing of Sigmund by Skarp-Hedin: Kallstenius, bls. Hallgerd to Gunnar, when he questions her as to the origin of the stolen provisions: My translation of the variant, which came into modern proverbial usage.

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JR Lika R bl. Hallbjorn to Otkel, on his having left communications in the hands of the maliciously dishonest Skamkel: Illt — engavin , ein allit. Decipitur quisquis seruum sibi poscit amicum, s. Diener 9.